His guidance for creating good math problems is so similar to what we have been learning about creating good inquiry-based science lessons. Throw out a simple question that is complicated to answer. Have the students come up with the steps and investigations to get to the final answer. Then help them with the skills to complete those steps and eventually reach that answer.
Dan Meyer calls this "Math Intuition." That is, the ability to have an innate sense of how things relate to one another mathematically. You have to know what the right questions are first, before you can get the information to solve the problem. And knowing how to ask the right question is probably the most relevant part of mathematics for real life. Watch his video below:
He goes on to talk about how there is strong evidence that the worst thing in the American education system is the constant testing. Students have to give up on real learning so that they can simply become good test takers. He points to Finland, where their students consistently rank far at the top of global education ratings. Their secret is that they have taken the testing and competition out of education. We are "testing our kids to death," he says. And our system is broken because of it.